NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS (NDT / NDE)
The field of non-destructive testing (NDT) covers a wide variety of analytical techniques that are applicable to many industries. These techniques can identify and assess defects and test the properties of all types of materials and structures without causing any damage. Since NDT does not alter the part or structure in any way, it is an extremely useful technique that can lead to cost and time savings in product evaluation, resource management, and fault identification and repair.
Non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasonic inspection, magnetic testing, penetration testing, radiographic testing, remote visual inspection (using drones), and eddy current testing are now standard practice in civil, aerospace, and systems engineering. Advances in non-destructive testing enable the generation of three-dimensional images of faults and have revolutionized many sectors.
Thanks to our advanced solutions, JORDAN NDT can reassure its customers that their structures and facilities are compatible with all applicable standards. The technical assurance provided by JORDAN NDT also minimizes the level of risk to the components and also helps to maintain productivity.
VT / VTe / VTd visual examinations
Visual testing is the most popular method of non-destructive testing. Visual examination is based on proper lighting of the tested surface and its accessibility. Visual tests require appropriate qualifications in the form of a certificate of competence in accordance with ISO 9712 / SNT-TC-1A and completion of appropriate training, courses (e.g. product and process knowledge, predicting operating conditions and acceptance criteria) and having a full range of equipment. Indications detected by other NDT methods are often confirmed / verified by visual inspection. VT can be classified as direct and afar visual examination. The equipment necessary for testing is simple and does not require specialist training, such as a source of light, meters (e.g. luxmeter), various measuring instruments (e.g. tape measure, caliper, weld gauges) or electronic measuring instruments (e.g. rangefinder), mirror sets, masses for imprinting shapes (e.g. replicas) and, when appropriate, enlarging devices (e.g. magnifiers, portable x32 microscopes). Remote research also uses more advanced devices. When viewing or inspecting internal / closed spaces, equipment such as a light lens system (boroscopes) or optical fibers (fiberoscopes) is used. More specialized / advanced fiber optic equipment allows the device to be inserted into very small openings or closed spaces with the possibility of full registration of tests / inspections. As a method of documentation cameras are necessary for visual inspection. In hard-to-reach places, where the work threatens basic safety, the climbing approach is not possible, and the costs of scaffolding construction are too high, there are used specialized drones recording the image in the 4K / 2.7K / FullHD system.
JORDAN NDT specialists and technicians have many years of experience in providing detailed visual inspection solutions and developing inspection procedures and properties. We are able to present conclusions regarding the quality and condition of equipment, as well as welds and welding processes used at workplaces around the globe. We can visually inspect hard-to-reach places using remote VTe devices: video cameras, endoscopes, borescopes, fiberoscopes and VTd tests, i.e. using drones.
Visual tests cover all industries and stages of production or operation of devices. VT can easily find and assess the following types of discontinuities:
• Mechanical faults
• Most other discontinuities that break or deshape the surface
• PN-EN 13018, Non-destructive testing – Visual testing – General rules
• PN-EN ISO 17637, Non-destructive testing of welded joints – Visual testing of welded joints
• PN-EN ISO 5817, Welding – Welded joints made of steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (except beam welded) – Quality levels according to welding imperfections
• PN-EN 13927, Non-destructive testing – Visual testing – Equipment
• PN-EN 1330-10, Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Part 10: Terms used in visual testing
• ISO 11971, Steel and iron castings. Surface visual examination.
Penetrant testing PT
Penetrant testing (PT) is one of the most commonly used surface NDT methods. PT is based on capillarity or capillary attraction, where liquid can flow into narrow spaces without the help of – or even in opposition to – external forces such as gravity. The material processes and procedures used in liquid penetration testing are designed so that the results of this capillary action are presentable and interpretable. Penetrant testing is an effective method of locating and determining the degree of surface discontinuity in materials, including those that are invisible to the naked eye.
JORDAN NDT uses only high-quality products from the best suppliers in the industry such as Pfinder, MR-Chemie and Bycotest. Mobile units can provide services anywhere in Poland and Europe. Our procedures are compatible with the requirements of ISO, NORSOK, ASNT and ASTM and the regulations of Classification Societies such as DNVGL, PRS, ABS, etc. We employ certified level III inspectors who provide support and guidance, and develop new procedures as needed.
PT can be used to locate and evaluate defects throughout the life cycle of components, such as:
• Manufacturing defects open to the surface (e.g. cracks)
• No penetration,
• Fatigue cracks,
• Inclusions, gas pores
Early identification of service discontinuities means downtime can be planned and performed properly, not as an emergency. This test method is used in various industries such as aerospace, food processing, power generation, oil production / mining and refining, offshore and more.
• PN-EN ISO 23277, Non-destructive testing of welds – Penetrant testing – Acceptance levels
• PN-EN 1371-1, Founding – Penetrant testing – Part 1: Sand, die and low pressure castings
• PN-EN 1371-2, Founding – Penetrant testing – Part 2: Castings made by the smelting method
• PN-EN 10228-2, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Penetrant testing
• PN-EN ISO 3452-1, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 1: General principles
• PN-EN ISO 3452-2, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 2: Testing of penetrant materials
• PN-EN ISO 3452-3, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 3: Reference samples
• PN-EN ISO 3452-4, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 4: Equipment
• PN-EN ISO 3452-5, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 5: Penetrant testing at temperatures higher than 50 degrees C
• PN-EN ISO 3452-6, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing – Part 6: Penetrant testing at temperatures lower than 10 degrees C
• PN-EN ISO 3059, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing – Observation conditions
• PN-EN ISO 12706, Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Terms used in penetrant testing
Magnetic powder testing MT
• Steel structures,
• Energy generation
• Food processing
• Paper production.
The complexity of modern industry and the need for safer and more reliable products and equipment sets manufacturing and testing procedures that ensure maximum reliability. Magnetic particle testing, when properly applied, can provide:
• Increased product reliability,
• Improved production processes so that they can be repaired, by identifying problems in a timely manner
• Reduced costs with fewer product returns and fewer revisions
• Overall improved quality.
• PN-EN ISO 17638, Non-destructive testing of welds – Magnetic particle testing
• PN-EN ISO 23278, Non-destructive testing of welds – Magnetic particle testing – Acceptance levels
• PN-EN 10228-1, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Part 1: Magnetic particle testing
• PN-EN 1369, Founding – Magnetic particle testing
• PN-EN ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing – Part 1: General principles
• PN-EN ISO 9934-2, Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing – Part 2: Detection agents
• PN-EN ISO 9934-3, Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing – Part 3: Apparatus
• PN-EN ISO 3059, Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing – Observation conditions
Ultrasonic testing of the UT
JORDAN NDT has advanced ultrasonic inspection tools and techniques to meet any UT challenge, from simple thickness measurement to fully automated inspection. The ultrasonic method belongs to the group of volumetric methods that allow to examine elements through their entire volume, similar to the radiographic method.
Ultrasonic testing uses high-frequency ultrasonic wave energy to perform tests and measurements. Ultrasonic testing can include dimensional measurements, thickness, material characteristics, flaw detection, and more. Enables testing of objects made of steel:
• Copper alloys
• Nickel and its alloys,
• Composite materials
Recently, many advances have been made in ultrasonic non – destructive testing, evolving from application to conventional thickness to using more advanced methods involving different modes. This method can be used to test objects subjected to various processing and joining processes:
The ultrasonic method enables the detection of the most dangerous internal material discontinuities, as well as surface and subsurface ones. It allows you to define the type of defect, dimensions and its location in the tested element. Ultrasonic testing can be used at any stage in a component’s life cycle, from inspecting sheets, forgings, castings or welds to monitoring corrosion during operation.
Ultrasonic testing is used in many industries including:
• Food processing,
• Paper production,
• Oil and gas production and refining
• Generation of energy,
The advantages of non-destructive testing with ultrasonic testing include:
• Most equipment is now semi-automatic or fully automatic
• Creates a permanent electronic record of the checks carried out
• It leads to a significant increase in the “probability of detection” (POD)
• Improves inspection integrity
• Promotes confidence in research by identifying unknown indications.
PN-EN ISO 17640, Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Techniques, test levels and assessment
PN-EN ISO 11666, Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Acceptance levels
• PN-EN ISO 23279, Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Characteristics of indications in welds
• PN-EN ISO 22825, Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys
• PN-EN 10160, Ultrasonic testing of flat steel products with a thickness equal to or greater than 6 mm (echo method)
• PN-EN 10307, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing of flat products made of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steels with a thickness equal to or greater than 6 mm (reflection method)
• PN-EN 12680-1, Founding – Ultrasonic testing – Part 1: General purpose steel castings
• PN-EN 12680-2, Founding – Ultrasonic testing – Part 2: Steel castings for parts working under high loads
• PN-EN 10228-3, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Ultrasonic testing of forgings made of ferritic or martensitic steels
• PN-EN 10228-4, Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Ultrasonic testing of forgings made of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steels
• PN-EN 10306, Iron and steel – Ultrasonic testing of H beams with parallel flange surfaces and IPE beams
• PN-EN ISO 16810, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – General principles
• PN-EN ISO 16811, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Setting the sensitivity and range of observation
• PN-EN ISO 16823, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Transmission technique
• PN-EN ISO 16826, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Testing of discontinuities perpendicular to the surface
• PN-EN ISO 16827, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Characterization and dimensioning of discontinuities
• PN-EN ISO 2400, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Model description No. 1
• PN-EN ISO 7963, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Technical conditions for the calibration of block no. 2
• PN-EN 12668-1, Non-destructive testing – Characterization and verification of ultrasonic equipment – Part 1: Apparatus
• PN-EN 12668-2, Non-destructive testing – Characterization and verification of ultrasonic devices – Part 2: Heads
• PN-EN 12668-3, Non-destructive testing – Characterization and verification of ultrasonic equipment – Part 3: Complete apparatus
• PN-EN 1330-4, Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Part 4: Terms used in ultrasonic testing
Ultrasonic thin wall testing IBUS-TD07
The need for ultrasonic testing of small welds with a thickness of 2.0 mm ÷ 8.0 mm and a diameter of DN25 has been noticed especially in power engineering, where the number of failures is high and the disasters are very serious. Design requirements set by investors, which place the main emphasis on timely work, create the need for tests that can replace radiological tests, and are beyond the reach of traditional ultrasonic tests. This is often caused by the number of test pieces, e.g. many thousands of welds on pipes (boilers) or running meters of the structure. IBUS-TD07 is a method of ultrasonic testing of butt welds with a thickness of 2.0 mm ÷ 8.0 mm using the echo method, using tandem heads for transverse waves. The ultrasonic methods, as well as the radiological method, examine the entire volume of the weld looking for discontinuities such as: sticking (ridge, weld, face), cracks, stripes of slags and bubbles, etc.
The IBUS-TD07 method has been qualified by the Office of Technical Inspection and can be used in sub-supervision devices on the terms specified in the repairs and modernization of these devices agreed by the Office of Technical Inspection.
Why Choose IBUS-TD07
|Problems||Radiological testing||IBUS-TD07 Ultrasonic testing|
Time of trench testing
|Trench testing is very tedious and often requires the trench to be widened to accommodate the llama in two perpendicular directions. An exemplary examination of the circumferential weld Ø76mm with the setting takes about 10-15min, and in the case of a diameter of Ø273mm, the testing time is extended to 30 – 45min.||Ultrasonic tests do not require trench widening. The tests only require grinding the spatter, and the testing time for the Ø76mm joint takes about 4 minutes, while the Ø273mm joint takes 10 minutes.|
|Environmental protection||When developing photos, I use chemicals that need to be disposed of, which translates into research costs.||We do not use any type of chemistry or radiation for ultrasonic testing.|
|Health protection||Radiographic testing emit radiation that is harmful to people in the vicinity of the source. That is why research is often carried out illegally, and the inhabitants of the area are unaware of the danger that exists under their windows. Research also interrupts all work, as workers are not allowed in the area.||Ultrasonic tests do not emit any radiation and are therefore safe for the environment. Also, performing them does not interrupt the work in the area. Tests can be performed 24 hours a day.|
|Assessment time||In radiological testing, the weld is assessed several hours later, sometimes on the second day after the radiograph is developed. In the event of a unsuccessful photo, the whole process has to be repeated, which extends the time for e.g. muffling and backfilling the trench.||The evaluation takes place while the tests are performed. After completing the tests, the operator automatically accepts the connector for further process or designates the area where the repair should be performed.|
|Pricing of tests||Radiological examinations are calculated per contact, e.g. diameters up to 100mm cost PLN 70 – 90 on the market, and a diameter above 100mm can cost even several hundred PLN.||Ultrasonic tests are several times cheaper, and the prices of the tests are presented in the table below|
Ultrasonic testing of Phased Array PA
Phased Array are used in a wide variety of inspection and measurement applications and can be used for any task performed by conventional ultrasound. For example, Phased Array are used to detect and visualize defects including cracks, voids and corrosion pitting. They are used to measure material and coating thickness and to detect changes in material properties. Another common use is to evaluate the quality of welds and rivets. Phased Array are also used for connection and interface control, for example for glue detection and mapping.
Phase arrangement ultrasonic testing (PAUT) probes consist of several piezoelectric crystals that can transmit / receive independently at different times. To focus the ultrasound beam, time delays are applied to the elements to create constructive interference of the wave fronts, allowing energy to be focused at any depth in the sample under test.
Electronic scanning is a process that recreates the control made by manually moving a standard UT probe. The ultrasound beam, depending on the aperture selected, is electronically moved through the entire probe. This allows for faster inspections and reduces mechanical displacement. This technique can be combined with beam focusing and beam steering. This can be done with an L wave or an S wave.
A sector scan is a process used to control an ultrasonic beam by electronically changing beam angles in a specific sector. This is done by applying electronic delay laws to various components of the head. This technique is an alternative to using several standard UT transducers with different angles. The advantage is that only one transducer is needed to inspect components from several angles; it is much faster than the standard UT with angular beam and displays the sample cross-section in real time for easier interpretation. This can be combined with electronic focusing and applied to L and S waves.
Phased Array has several advantages over conventional ultrasonic probes, which result from the possibility of dynamic control of the beam transmitted to the structure under test.
Multi-sensor heads can reduce inspection time by eliminating or reducing the need for mechanical scanning and taking advantage of the ability to perform electronic scanning. Electronic scanning is performed by firing successive groups of elements in the array. The elimination or reduction of mechanical scanning also increases the reliability of the measurements by eliminating the variation (or loss) of coupling, which is a risk each time the probe is moved.
While a conventional probe has a single focal length and one orientation, a single phase array probe allows the user to alter the shape and focal length of the ultrasound beam to optimize each inspection. Acoustic energy can be focused and delay laws can be applied to control the acoustic beam. Dynamic Depth Focusing allows you to take measurements at several depths at the same time as is needed for a single depth measurement using a conventional probe.
• PN-EN 16018: 2012 Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Terms used in ultrasonic testing with phase sequence
• PN-EN ISO 18563-1: 2015 Non-destructive testing – Characterization and verification of multi-transducer ultrasonic devices – Part 1: Apparatus
• PN-EN ISO 18563-3: 2016 Non-destructive testing – Characterization and verification of ultrasonic equipment with multi-transducer heads – Part 3: Complete apparatus
• ISO 19675 Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Phased Array Specification (PAUT)
• PN-EN ISO 13588: 2019 Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Application of the automated mosaic head technology
• PN-EN ISO 19285 Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing with the mosaic head technique (PAUT) – Acceptance criteria
TOFD ultrasonic testing
Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) systems use a pair of ultrasonic probes placed on opposite sides of the weld or area under test. The transmitter probe emits an ultrasonic pulse which is picked up by the receiver probe on the opposite side. In the undamaged part, the signals received by the receiving probe come from two waves: one that travels across the surface (surface wave) and the other that reflects off the far wall (reflection from the back wall). When there is a discontinuity, such as a crack, the ultrasonic wave diffracts from the top and bottom ends of the crack. Using the measured pulse flight time, the crack tip depth can be calculated automatically using a trigonometric application. This method is more reliable than traditional radiographic methods, manual ultrasonic methods, and automated Phased Array weld testing methods. TOFD provides high accuracy for the critical wall size of crack-like damage. Accuracy greater than ± 1 mm can be achieved over a wide range of material thicknesses for structural components, e.g. pressure vessels.
Advantages of TOFD
• High speed of examination,
• Exam record with the exact location of indications,
• High accuracy and repeatability,
• Easy method.
PN-EN ISO 10863: 2011 Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Application of the ultrasonic wave diffraction technique (TOFD)
PN-EN ISO 15626: 2018 Non-destructive testing of welds – Diffraction beam transit time (TOFD) technique – Acceptance levels
Ultrasonic thickness measurements of UTM
UT wall thickness measurement is a technique that uses high frequency sound energy to conduct research and obtain thickness measurements. During the ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM) test, a beam perpendicular to the surface enters into the test object and the time to travel in both directions is measured. Measurable information can be collected to detect local or general changes in wall thickness.
JORDAN NDT has developed proven and tested UTM inspection procedures in accordance with applicable standards, e.g. at the premises of LOTOS or ORLEN group. Our NDT operators are rigorously trained and assessed during ultrasonic inspections in both data collection and interpretation.
The technique of manual ultrasonic thickness measurement has been applied to a variety of devices and in a wide range of fields, including:
• Power plants,
• CHP plants,
• Drilling rig,
• Transport pipelines
• Steel structures,
• Lifting equipment,
UT wall thickness measurements are essential to maintain the mechanical integrity of components in all industries.
The data that JORDAN NDT can provide as part of our UTM inspection and UT wall thickness measurement services provide key, measurable information that can be used to track the integrity of inspected objects.
Data from the UTM inspection can be collected quickly and easily using small, portable equipment (also made in EX technology). The technique does not require access to both sides of the sample and can penetrate many different types of coatings and composites.
• PN-EN 16809, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic thickness measurement
• PN-EN 15317, Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic testing – Characterization and verification of ultrasonic devices for thickness measurement
RT radiographic examinations
Radiographic testing (RT) is one of the most basic volumetric testing methods used in industry. Radiography covers a wide range of techniques, from the use of film to digital, from digital techniques, from computed (CR) and direct (DR) to real-time radiography (RTR) and computed tomography (CT). All of these techniques include X-rays or gamma rays generated by a lamp or the Iridium-192, Selenium-75 or Cobalt-60 isotope. RT is capable of penetrating a wide range of materials with different densities to detect internal weld quality defects; profile systems in service to determine if there is corrosion or erosion; evaluate castings for manufacturing defects or foreign bodies; and detect damages in composites.
Radiography has many uses in industry. Whether it is conventional foil or a digital RT system, it can be used to check the quality of a weld or to profile existing pipelines to determine the presence of under-insulation corrosion (CUI), flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) or residual wall thicknesses.
RT has been used in several industries and for various types of inspection including:
• Steel structures,
• Renovation and construction,
• corrosion monitoring,
• LNG production.
Advantages of using radiography:
• Possibility to test various types of materials with different densities,
• Possibility to test assembled components,
• Minimum requirements for surface preparation,
• Sensitivity to changes in thickness (corrosion, voids, cracks) and material density,
• Detects both surface and subsurface defects in the entire tested volume,
• Provides a permanent record of the examination in the form of a film.
• PN-EN ISO 5579, Non-destructive testing – Radiographic testing of metallic materials with the use of films and X or gamma rays – Basic principles
• PN-EN ISO 17636-1, Non-destructive testing of welds – Radiographic testing – Part 1: X-ray and gamma-ray techniques from the film
• PN-EN ISO 10675-1, Non-destructive testing of welds – Acceptance criteria for radiographic testing – Part 1: Steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys
• PN-EN ISO 10675-2, Non-destructive testing of welds – Acceptance criteria for radiographic testing – Part 2: Aluminum and its alloys
• PN-EN 12681, Founding – Radiographic tests
• ISO 4993, Steel and iron castings. Radiographic research
• PN-EN ISO 19232-1, Non-destructive testing – Image quality of radiographs – Part 1: Numerical determination of image quality using rod-type image quality indicators
• PN-EN ISO 19232-3, Non-destructive testing – Image quality of radiographs – Part 3: Image quality classes
• PN-EN ISO 11699-1, Non-destructive testing – Industrial radiographic film – Part 1: Classification of film systems for industrial radiography
• PN-EN 25580, Non-destructive testing – Industrial radiographic negatoscopes – Minimum requirements
• PN-EN ISO 11699-2, Non-destructive testing – Industrial radiographic film – Part 2: Control of film treatment using reference values
• PN-EN 1330-3, Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Terms used in industrial radiographic testing
Eddy current testing ET
Eddy current inspection is one of several non-destructive testing methods that use the principle of electromagnetism to conduct testing. Other methods such as remote field testing (RFT), flux leakage, and Barkhausen noise also use this principle.
Eddy current testing is completed by a process called electromagnetic induction. When an alternating current is applied to a conductor such as copper wire, a magnetic field is created in and around the conductor. This magnetic field expands as the alternating current increases to its maximum and then decays as the current drops to zero. When another electrical conductor is placed in close proximity to this changing magnetic field, a current will be induced in the other conductor. Eddy currents are induced electrical currents that follow a circular path. Eddy current testing takes its name from the eddy eddies that occur when a liquid or gas flows in a circular path around obstacles under the right conditions.
Eddy current testing can be used in any sector that uses heat exchange systems, including the petrochemical, energy, industrial air conditioning and heating industries, but also in, inter alia, in aviation, engineering, metallurgical industry, during heat exchanger tests and in weld tests.
Advantages of eddy current testing
• Possibility to test all types of electrically conductive materials,
• Fast and non-invasive method,
• The test is not disturbed by paints and anti-corrosion coatings,
• Leaves no traces of examination.
• Clean method without the use of research chemicals.
• PN-EN ISO 15549 Non-destructive testing – Eddy current testing – General principles
• PN-EN ISO 12718 Non-destructive testing – Eddy current testing – Glossary
• PN-EN ISO 17643 Non-destructive testing of welds – Testing with eddy currents of welds by analysis of the complex plane
Tightness tests with the LT bubble method
Vacuum chamber testing provides full thickness leak detection and is most commonly used for weld testing. Cracks, pores, and lack of fusion are typical causes of leaks detected by this method. The bubble-forming solution is applied to the test surface by spraying or brushing the solution over the test area. Household soaps or detergents specifically designed for cleaning must not replace bubble-forming solutions. A commercial leak detection solution that complies with the temperature conditions during the test is used. As standard, the surface temperature of the test piece should not be lower than 5 ° C or higher than 50 ° C throughout the test.
A vacuum box is then placed on the surface with a viewing window large enough to see the entire area and allow sufficient light into the chamber for proper examination. The box is then emptied, which, thanks to its design and suitable seal, is capable of producing and maintaining a pressure difference of at least 8 psi. A calibrated pressure gauge is placed in the system to check the required differential pressure to detect a vacuum seal or other type of leak in the equipment. The area is then inspected for full thickness leakage through the formation of bubbles on the surface.
JORDAN NDT uses a vacuum chamber leak test to test butt and overlap welds as well as fillet welds.
Advantages of the method:
• Immediate results of leakage points directly on the tested surface,
• Easy to use,
• Low cost of research,
• Possibility to detect small leaks,
• One-way access sufficient,
• The relatively clean method does not require comprehensive cleaning up after the test
Vacuum Box Standards:
• PN-EN 1593, Non-destructive testing – Leak testing – Bubble test
• PN-EN 1330-8, Non-destructive testing – Terminology – Terms used in leak testing
• PN-EN 1779, Non-destructive testing – Leak testing – Criteria for the selection of methods and techniques
• ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V Article 10 – Tightness Test, Appendix II – Bubble Test – Vacuum Chamber Technique
Analysis and testing of the chemical composition of PMI metals
Positive Material Identification (PMI) is a non-destructive testing method used to verify that the delivered materials comply with the material data sheets and their equivalents in standards and specifications. We perform analysis and testing of the chemical composition of metals (PMI) using portable XRF fluorescence spectrometers and laser spectrometers that allow the identification of typical metal species.
Measuring range: C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se , Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, V, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, Ra, Hf , Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, TI, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb , Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Ac, Th, Pa.
At JORDAN NDT, we use PMI tests primarily for the rapid verification of alloys, testing and identification of Cr-Mo steels, low-alloy steels, alloys: nickel, titanium, aluminum and copper, alloy steels, austenitic steels, tool steels, aluminum alloys, cobalt alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, “Iconel” materials, “Duplex” materials, unidentified alloys and steels, carbon steels.
Advantages of PMI research
• Quick analysis of the chemical composition,
• Portable digital technology,
• Leaves no traces of examination.
• API RP 578, Material verification program for new and existing alloy steel pipelines,
• ASTM E 1476, Standard Guide for Metal Identification, Grade Verification and Sorting.
FE ferrite content measurements
Ferrite testing is a fast, inexpensive and accurate way to measure delta ferrite content in austenitic and duplex stainless steels. Ferrite testing can establish the perfect balance of ferrite content between ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance and anti-crack prevention.
JORDAN NDT is able to provide results by placing the probe on the sample surface, so that the reading is displayed automatically and stored in the instrument. To facilitate the measurement of ferrite along the seam, our testing instruments feature continuous measurement recording. As the weld seam is scanned, continuous readings are captured and saved. Ferrite content measurements can be made independently of the properties of the base material and starting from the plating thickness of 3 mm. Calibration follows customer-specific calibration standards or correction factors that can be used to account for the influence of specimen shape, coating and substrate thickness.
Results are generally available immediately and, depending on customer requirements, can be provided as spot or profile readings, as a percentage (%) or as a ferrite number (FN).
Places such as chemical, power and process plants are often exposed to heat, aggressive media and high pressure. Therefore, the steel used in these plants must be highly resistant to corrosion and acid, while retaining its elasticity even at high temperatures. If the ferrite content is too low, the welded material is prone to hot cracking. If the ferrite content is too high, the strength, ductility and corrosion resistance of the steel are reduced. In duplex steels, a lack of ferrite in the weld area results in stress corrosion cracking followed by a reduction in strength.
• PN-EN ISO 8249 Welding – Determination of ferrite number (FN) in weld metal of stainless chromium-nickel austenitic steels and ferritic-austenitic duplex
• PN-EN ISO 17655 Non-destructive testing of metal welds – Sampling method for delta ferrite measurement.
HT hardness tests
Hardness measurements are useful for field use, for example to verify that the post-weld heat treatment of a weld has been properly performed or that the weld meets the required hardness limits set out in standards or established by recognized industry bodies. Portable hardness testing techniques are fast and economical. Metal hardness measurements are performed so that the results can be correlated with other material properties such as tensile strength or abrasion resistance.
JORDAN NDT has a high level of experience and knowledge to professionally perform hardness measurements on site. We use the latest portable hardness testers to ensure the most accurate readings. All hardness measurements are performed according to a verified and approved written procedure that takes into account the conditions and requirements for calibration, surface preparation, removal of non-representative material (paint, oxides, decarburized layer) and the measurement methodology itself. JORDAN NDT offers hardness measurements using the UCI method (Ultrasonic Contact Impedance) and the dynamic Leeb method (Equotip). We use portable hardness measurement techniques to test ferrous and non-ferrous metals and their alloys, welds, heat affected zones (HAZ), castings, forgings, materials after heat treatment, elements after machining, and installation elements in the operating phase such as pipelines, pressure vessels and steel structures.
Hardness measurements using the UCI method (Ultrasonic Contact Impedance)
The UCI method uses a probe that has a built-in rod terminated with a Vickers diamond indenter mounted at one end. The rod oscillates at a frequency of about 70 kHz, when the probe diamond is pressed against the material under test, the frequency changes from this base value due to the properties of the material under test. The frequency change is proportional to the contact area, i.e. the area of the indentation created by the Vickers diamond. The device software compares the two frequencies and mathematically calculates the Vickers hardness (HV) value.
Hardness memory using the UCI method is a comparative method, therefore, prior to testing, calibration should be performed on a material with Young’s modulus similar to the tested material. The UCI method is well suited for measuring the hardness in the heat-affected zone of the weld, also for thin materials (thickness measurement from 6 mm is recommended).
Leeb dynamic hardness measurements
The name “dynamic method” comes from the method of measuring hardness. The hammer inside the probe of the device is released at a certain speed and hits the sample, the measured speed after rebound is compared to the original speed and mathematically converted to Leeb Hardness (HL), which is digitally displayed on the device. The instrument software can then convert the HL units to conventional hardness measurement units such as HRC, HV or HB.
The accuracy of the measurements is influenced by the thickness of the tested element (it is recommended to test from 20mm) and its weight (it is recommended to test over 2 kg).
• PN-EN ISO 6507-3, Metals – Vickers hardness measurement – Calibration of hardness standards
• PN-EN ISO 9015-1, Destructive testing of welded joints of metals – Hardness testing – Part 1: Testing of hardness of arc-welded joints
• ASTM A1038 – 13, Standard Test Method for Portable Hardness Testing by the Ultrasonic Contact Impedance Method
• ASTM A956 Standard Test Method for Leeb Hardness Testing of Steel Products
• ASTM E140 – 12be1 Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness
• PN-EN ISO 16859-1, Metals – Leeb hardness measurement – Part 1: Test method
• PN-EN ISO 16859-2, Metals – Leeb hardness measurement – Part 2: Testing and calibration of hardness testers
• PN-EN ISO 16859-3, Metals – Leeb hardness measurement – Part 3: Calibration of reference standards
• PN-EN ISO 18265, Metals – Conversion of hardness values
SUPERVISION AND INSPECTIONS
ATCS – Assessment of Technical Condition Structures or SCA – Structural Condition Assessment
Currently, there are many Offshore inland structures on our market, whose glory days have passed. They are still needed and indispensable for the functioning of infrastructure, plants and ordinary residents. Therefore, structures such as bridges, footbridges, viaducts, wind towers, antenna masts, chimneys, wharfs, hall structures, cranes, gantries, derricks, tracks, etc. are able to continue to function (be in operation) or require renovation or closure due to the risk to human life or the environment. For this knowledge, JORDAN NDT performs comprehensive ATCS-Assessment of Technical Condition Structures (ATCS) inspections. The inspection consists in a detailed analysis of the actual state of the structure / elements, which may include:
• NDT non-destructive testing,
• DT destructive testing,
• Geodetic measurements,
• Analysis of mechanical engineers, designers, etc.
Based on the collected and processed data, a full ATCS assessment can be performed, which provides the following information:
• Deviations from the project,
• The actual state of the material, devices, anti-corrosion coatings,
• Operating defects, e.g. corrosion, cracks etc.
• Threats and consequences,
• Further steps to be taken (advice).
Properly performed assessment of the technical condition of the structure requires experience, knowledge and analytical skills. Issuing opinions, conclusions and recommendations involves a lot of responsibility. However, its execution and implementation may protect the Ordering Party from incurring the costs of replacement related to the loss of functional properties of structures and materials, minimization of costs with further damage / degradation progress and protection against legal and financial consequences related to the threat to life or the environment.
Inspections using mountaineering techniques
Rope access inspection is typically used as an alternative to traditional access solutions such as scaffolding. In industry, non-destructive rope access testing is invaluable in situations where traditional access solutions are not cost effective and are widely used in structures such as bland wind turbine repairs or oil and gas platform inspections.
Stage III supervision: NDT, FROSIO
Level 3 supervision of the activities in the field of non-destructive testing (NDT level 3) and anti-corrosion protection (FROSIO level 3) – research and substantive supervision of level 3 over the tests, verification and authorization of the applicable test procedures (Polish and English language versions), technical consultancy in the field of NDT and anti-corrosion, including the development of detailed research instructions for specific tasks / orders, supervision of test procedures and standards used in the company (update), supervision of the research competences of NDT operators and anti-corrosion inspectors, including internal training in each of the methods and fields.
Audits of production plants – qualifying the plant and personnel based on the required standards, verification of the plant’s infrastructure and equipment in relation to the design requirements, verification and analysis of production possibilities, verification of the production process and the quality of the finished product.
Welding supervision – supervision personnel in accordance with the requirements of PN-EN ISO 14731 (IWE, EWE, IWI, EWI), qualification of WPQR welding technology in accordance with the requirements of PN-EN ISO 15614-1, conducting examinations of welders qualifications in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9606-1, development and implementation of system procedures for compliance with PN-EN ISO 3834-2 and PN-EN 1090, welding audits.
Quality supervision – Quality Control Inspector with appropriate qualifications in accordance with the requirements of the Ordering Party. Completion, verification and handover of full quality documentation of the performed works (AS-BUILT as-built documentation).
Health and safety supervision / fire protection
Chief Health and Safety Inspector after completing studies and appropriate qualifications in accordance with the requirements of the Ordering Party. Active preventive actions – direct supervision of works, behaviour correction, suspending dangerous works and their documentation. Corrective actions, talks with employees and subcontractors (Toolbox), giving opinions on solutions ensuring the safety of performed works, consultancy for supervisors and engineers, weekly reporting of health and safety and fire protection.
A qualified team of engineers in the field of welding, materials science, machine construction and construction, production engineering supports investors, general contractors in proper supervision over commissioned works or contracts. We take over all obligations: supervision over the correct design of the structure, acceptance of the technical conditions for the production and acceptance of the structure, acceptance of Contractors selected by the Investor, production supervision, we advise and solve production problems in the field of steel structure manufacturing, non-destructive testing and the anti-corrosion protection process.
Design of structures
In our industry, we often encounter incorrect design of the structure, non-technological connections, oversizing of the structure, resulting in higher costs at the production and assembly stage, which ultimately affects the higher cost of the entire project. Our team is at your disposal to eliminate design errors and minimize investment costs at the design stage.
In the design process, we use the most modern CAD design support tools, including software:
• AUTO CAD;
We create technical and construction documentation of manufactured products, including 3D models. The structures designed by our company are manufactured, commissioned and put into production.